–By Christy Fandel, Coast Survey physical scientist
Have you ever wondered what lies beneath the charted soundings on a nautical chart? While surveying Alaskan waters during the 2013 hydrographic field season, collecting bathymetry to update NOAA’s nautical charts, hydrographers revealed many interesting geologic features on the seafloor.
NOAA focuses a significant portion of our ocean mapping effort along the Alaskan coast. The Alaskan coastline represents over 50% of the United States coastline and dated nautical charts are inadequate for the increasing vessel traffic in this region. NOAA surveys are essential for providing reliable charts to the area’s commercial shippers, passenger vessels, and fishing fleets.
This past season, NOAA-funded hydrographic surveys in Alaska revealed many interesting geological features on the seafloor. Three surveys, in particular, took place in southeastern Alaska in the Behm Canal, along the Aleutian Chain within the coastal waters surrounding Akutan Island, and around Chirikof Island.
These three areas were among the areas surveyed by the NOAA Ship Rainier and surveying contractor Fugro-Pelagos during the 2013 field season.
In May, hydrographic surveying conducted by NOAA Ship Rainier in the Behm Canal revealed two distinct geological features. In the northern region of the canal, scientists identified a long, meandering ancient river. This ancient submarine river is nearly 40 km in length with up to 50 m in relief. Further south, Rainier surveyed a large volcanic-like feature. The surveyed volcano appears to have a distinct caldera, or collapse-feature that most likely formed after the volcanic eruption.
Multibeam bathymetry of the northeastern portion of the Behm Canal shows a large, meandering submarine river. The cross-sectional inset highlights the relief of the channel, nearly 50 m, as shown by the red box.
Multibeam data acquired by NOAA Ship Rainier shows a large volcanic feature in the southern portion of the Behm Canal.
Directly following the Behm Canal survey, Rainier transited west to survey the coastal waters surrounding Chirikof Island. The acquired bathymetric data revealed a stark northeast-trending fault in the southeastern portion of the survey area. This surveyed fault is distinguished by a clear misalignment across the fracture.
The red box outlines the northeast-trending fault along the coast of Chirikof Island, shown with bathymetry acquired by the Rainier.
Concurrently, an Office of Coast Survey hydrographic surveying contractor – Fugro-Pelagos – was surveying off the western coast of Akutan Island. Fugro’s hydrographers identified a large volcanic feature within the acquired bathymetric data. The surveyed volcanic feature is believed to be either a volcanic vent or cinder cone volcano. The multiple circular rings outlining this feature may represent the successive lava flows that formed the volcano.
Multibeam bathymetry acquired by Fugro, around Akutan Island, shows a large volcanic vent or cinder cone volcano, marked by multiple circular rings that represent the successive lava flows that formed the volcano.
With the upcoming 2014 hydrographic field season quickly approaching, the number of geologic discoveries will only increase. Extending all along the Aleutian Chain, from Kodiak Island to Bechevin Bay, the planned surveys for the 2014 field season will surely reveal many interesting and previously unknown geologic features.
In 2005, the International Hydrographic Organization established World Hydrography Day, celebrated annually on June 21. To observe this year’s World Hydrography Day, NOAA’s Office of Coast Survey is calling for articles for an e-publication dedicated to this year’s theme: “Hydrography: It’s More Than Charts.” Hydrography is the science upon which nautical charting is based, but, as this year’s World Hydrography Day theme conveys, researchers and planners use hydrography in a range of activities that benefit the coastal environment and the marine economy.
A NOAA survey ship uses its multibeam echo sounder to conduct hydrographic surveys
This e-publication will bring the world of hydrography to non-hydrographers who don’t know what they’re missing! By publishing a variety of short, enlightening articles that describe the many beneficial uses of hydrographic data, we hope to inform – and inspire – policy makers, coastal planners, future hydrographers, and industries that benefit from a vital ocean economy. Let’s share some coastal intelligence.
This call for contributions is open to the public, to researchers, and to people at all levels of local, state, and federal government. International participation is encouraged. We welcome submissions of interesting, original articles discussing the use of hydrographic survey data beyond creating and updating nautical charts. We are particularly interested in case histories of creative approaches and partnerships that solved a problem. Submissions describing visionary concepts for future activities, especially with projects that strengthen smart ocean use and planning, or that contribute to the growth of the ocean economy, are also welcome.
Possible topics may include, but are not limited to, use of hydrography and hydrographic data in:
- port operations
- coastal planning and development
- legal dispute resolution
- geographical boundary establishment
- alternative energy siting
- fisheries management
- habitat mapping
- coastal modeling
- marine resource conservation
- storm surge forecasting
- extended continental shelf determination
- military/naval operations
- hazard mitigation (e.g., to initiate oil spill trajectory models, or to assist in predicting where spilled oil will go)
PROPOSAL DEADLINE: MARCH 2, 2014
NOTIFICATION OF SELECTION: MARCH 10
FINAL ARTICLE DUE: MAY 16
PUBLICATION: JUNE 21
Please email proposals of your article, and a brief CV (no more than 100 words), to firstname.lastname@example.org by 12 pm EST, March 2. Proposals should not exceed 250 words. Provide a synopsis of your topic, with an outline of your projected content.
No later than March 10, Coast Survey will notify authors who are selected to submit full articles. Selected authors have until May 16 to submit articles up to 1,500 words. (Failure to submit articles by the deadline may result in elimination from the publication.)
Each author whose article is selected for publication will be required to verify in writing that his/her submission(s) is an original work of authorship. In addition, the author of each submission grants to the U.S. Government a royalty-free, irrevocable license to reproduce, distribute, create derivative works from, and publicly perform and display such work in any form or medium, including print or electronic, without geographic limitation.
This publication is meant to be an easy and enjoyable reading experience for people who are not necessarily experts in hydrography, so keep your article clear and concise. (Authors may find the federal government guidelines for plain language useful.) Always explain abbreviations, acronyms, and technical terms, if you must use them. For questions on grammar, punctuation, usage, and journalistic style, please refer to the Associated Press Stylebook.
After acceptance, Coast Survey editors will edit articles for grammar and readability, but authors will have authority over final content of their articles.
SUGGESTED ARTICLE FORMAT
The text of the article must be submitted in Microsoft Word format. All images must be submitted as separate electronic files, accompanied by a caption. Do not include images in the text of your document.
Headline: Maximum five words
Subhead: Maximum ten words
First Paragraph: Tell the reader what the article is about. Give them a reason to keep reading. Limit the first paragraph to 100 words.
Body text: Try to organize your article into sections of no more than 200 words each. Use subheadings that describe the content of that section. Do not use footnotes, endnotes, headers, footers, or page numbers.
Graphics: Provide photos, maps, figures, or charts that illustrate the point of your article and inspire curiosity. Use the highest resolution that you can achieve. We will credit the author of an image whenever and wherever it appears in the publication, so there’s no need to watermark photos. Do not include caption in your images, as captions will be added in the editing process. Additionally, skip the frames and artistic borders supplied with some editing apps.
If you have questions, contact Coast Survey communications specialist, Dawn Forsythe, at email@example.com or use this form.
NOAA’s Office of Coast Survey is the nation’s nautical chartmaker. Using NOAA vessels and private contractors, Coast Survey conducts and manages hydrographic surveys that acquire data to create charts, map seafloor terrain, and improve modeling.
From surveying our most northern Alaskan waters last year, to our southern coastal waters this year, NOAA Ship Fairweather has really been making the hydrographic rounds, so to speak. This month, Fairweather’s hydrographic work is reaping benefits for the maritime industry in Los Angeles and Long Beach.
Fairweather is surveying this area in response to requests from the Port of Los Angeles, the Port of Long Beach, and the pilots who maneuver increasing large oil tankers and cargo ships through the area’s crowded shipping lanes. This project will acquire data for comprehensive updates to NOAA nautical charts 18749 and 18751, which provide the depth measurements and aids to navigation that mariners rely on for safe transit. Fairweather last surveyed the area in 1975, and NOAA contracted for a small survey in 2000.
This chart shows where NOAA Ship Fairweather is surveying.
This project undertakes surveys encompassing 114 square nautical miles. Of those, NOAA considers 89 SNM as critical to safe navigation and therefore a NOAA priority. The survey areas include San Pedro Bay and its approaches, stretching south to the waters off Huntington Beach and Newport Beach.
Capt. Kip Louttit, executive director of the Marine Exchange of Southern California San Pedro, presents a certificate of appreciation to Fairweather‘s commanding officer, Cmdr. James Crocker. Photo courtesy of Capt. Kip Louttit
Retired Coast Guard captain J. Kip Louttit, executive director of the Marine Exchange of Southern California San Pedro, visited the ship last week to thank the “great ship and crew [for] doing an incredibly necessary survey for the ports.”
The Fairweather usually operates in Alaskan coastal waters and, last year, conducted a noteworthy hydrographic reconnaissance along the U.S. coast in Arctic waters to determine the priorities for updating Arctic charts. Fairweather is part of the NOAA fleet of ships and aircraft operated, managed, and maintained by NOAA’s Office of Marine and Aviation Operations, which includes both civilians and the commissioned officers of the NOAA Corps, one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The ship is homeported in Ketchikan, Alaska.
In a step towards greater efficiency in NOAA’s hydrographic surveying, experts onboard the NOAA Ship Ferdinand R. Hassler just wrapped up the first extended testing of Coast Survey’s new bathymetric mapping autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). From Sept 3 to 13, the vehicle completed ten missions lasting up to 16 hours during day and night, while the ship continued with its assigned hydrographic surveys in the approaches to Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
This AUV is equipped with high resolution seabed mapping equipment similar to the ship’s, including a high accuracy positioning system and multibeam echosounder capable of producing seamless maps of the seafloor.
During this cruise, Coast Survey and Hassler personnel developed safe deployment and recovery procedures for the 675-pound, 13-foot vehicle, and they standardized mission programming and monitoring protocols to integrate the AUV with the shipboard survey operations. Future tests will refine these techniques, and focus on integrating the AUV’s seabed mapping data into the ship’s data processing workflow.
Coast Survey’s AUV team lead Rob Downs and Lt. Adam Reed prepare to initiate the AUV mission. Chief boatswain Brad Delinski, hydro senior survey technician David Moehl, and able-bodied seaman Bruce Engert guide the AUV to the launch position, while field operations officer Lt. Madeleine Adler directs the operation. Photo credit: Lt. Olivia Hauser