Coast Survey prepares to serve nation during 2018 hurricane season

“But, sir, what does the country want in the coast survey? They want a very useful work done, a very important work done, and they want it done in the best manner.” U.S. Senator John Davis (MA), 1849, explaining the importance of the coast survey to safety and the U.S. economy during the 30th Congress, 2nd Session

As the nation’s nautical chartmaker, NOAA Coast Survey provides critical emergency response information to coastal communities and waterways. Each year, Coast Survey prepares for hurricane season in order to perform the work in—as the late Senator Davis put it—“the best manner.” Last year’s string of powerful hurricanes underscored the importance of coordinated efforts for storm preparation, response, and recovery. With the official start of the 2018 hurricane season just around the corner, Coast Survey’s regional navigation managers spent the large part of April and May meeting with U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), port authorities, NOAA National Weather Service, and communities to prepare emergency response capabilities.

Understanding each others’ roles and responsibilities ahead of time is imperative to a response effort as strong storms can shut down ports and compromise our nation’s marine transportation system. Our East Coast and Gulf Coast navigation managers report on NOAA’s survey capabilities and critical assets at hurricane exercises and planning meetings. With Coast Survey’s expertise in underwater detection, NOAA navigation response teams and survey ships are often first on the water following a hurricane, making sure that no hidden debris or shoaling pose dangers to navigation.

Tim Osborn (left), the navigation manager for the east Gulf Coast, Dr. Neil Jacobs (center), Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Environmental Observation and Prediction
Tim Osborn (left), the navigation manager for the east Gulf Coast, Dr. Neil Jacobs (center), Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Environmental Observation and Prediction, prepare to interact with attendees of the Hurricane Awareness Tour in Lakeland, Florida. Credit: Tim Osborn

This year, NOAA navigation managers participated in hurricane exercises in:

  • Texas: Beaumont, Port Arthur, and Houston/Galveston/Freeport
  • Louisiana: Port Charles, Port Fourchon
  • Alabama: Orange Beach
  • Florida: Lakeland, Tampa, Port Canaveral
  • Georgia: Savannah
  • South Carolina: Charleston
  • Virginia: Hampton Roads
  • Maryland: Baltimore
  • Pennsylvania: Delaware River and Bay (Philadelphia port complex)

Meetings are planned with USCG Sector San Juan staff as well as Puerto Rico South Coast Harbor Safety and Security in early June.

NOAA's southeast navigation manager, Kyle Ward (left) meets with USCG, Port Authority and other representatives of the Maritime community at the pre-hurricane meeting hosted at Port Canaveral, Florida.
NOAA’s southeast navigation manager, Kyle Ward (left) meets with USCG, Port Authority and other representatives of the maritime community at the pre-hurricane meeting hosted at Port Canaveral, Florida.

Additionally, Tim Osborn, the navigation manager for the east Gulf Coast, Alan Bunn, the navigation manager for the west Gulf Coast, and Lt. Cmdr. Jay Lomnicky, chief of Coast Survey’s Navigation Response Branch, recently participated in the Gulf Inland Waterways Joint Hurricane Team (JHT) meeting. This large Gulf-wide event held each year at the Port of New Orleans includes USCG, tug and tow industry, pilots, deep draft navigation, ports, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and NOAA partners from Brownsville, Texas, spanning east to Panama City, Florida. Each participant is a working member of the JHT for the current hurricane season.

Alan Bunn (center), the navigation manager for the west Gulf Coast, and Lt. Cmdr. Jay Lomnicky (right), chief of Coast Survey’s Navigation Response Branch, attend a presentation by the USCG at the Gulf Inland Waterways Joint Hurricane Team meeting. Alan Bunn was presented with a Command Coin from USACE Galveston, in recognition thanks for his efforts, and that of OCS, in the Hurricane Harvey Response.
Alan Bunn (center), navigation manager for the west Gulf Coast, and Lt. Cmdr. Jay Lomnicky (right), chief of Coast Survey’s Navigation Response Branch, attend a presentation by the USCG at the Gulf Inland Waterways Joint Hurricane Team meeting. Alan Bunn was presented with a Command Coin from USACE Galveston, in recognition for his efforts, and that of OCS, in the Hurricane Harvey response. Credit: Tim Osborn

Capt. Jim Crocker, chief of NOAA’s Navigation Services Division, and Kyle Ward,  navigation manager for the Southeast Coast, participated in a USCG District 7 workshop in Miami, Florida, to discuss the region’s readiness for the upcoming hurricane season. District 7 is responsible for six regionally-based sectors stretching from Charleston, South Carolina, to Key West, Florida, and Saint Petersburg, Florida, to the U.S. Virgin Islands. Last year, each of these sectors was impacted by either Hurricane Irma, Hurricane Maria, or both storms. Hydrographic survey vessels operated by NOAA and the USACE are considered critical assets to the USCG.

When severe weather isn’t heading for the coast, NOAA navigation managers work directly with pilots, mariners, port authorities, and recreational boaters to help identify navigational challenges facing the marine transportation system, and provide the resources and services that promote safe and efficient navigation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poster symposium marks milestone for inaugural class of the NOAA certification program in nautical cartography

NOAA’s Christie Ence (left), Megan Bartlett (third from left), and Noel Dyer (right) explain their posters to attendees of the poster symposium at the University of Maryland.
NOAA’s Christie Ence (left), Megan Bartlett (third from left), and Noel Dyer (right) explain their posters to attendees of the poster symposium at the University of Maryland.

Students of NOAA’s certification program in nautical cartography completed their final projects and presented them along with other Master of Professional Studies in GIS students during a poster symposium at the University of Maryland’s Department of Geographical Sciences. At the event, NOAA students explained their capstone projects and described how their research benefits nautical charting at NOAA. Project topics included:

  • Improving Shoreline Application to NOAA Electronic Navigational Charts, Megan Bartlet
  • An Automated Approach to Generate Nautical Vector Features from Raster Bathymetric Attributed Grid Data, Noel Dyer
  • Developing a Rasterization Procedure for Vector Chart Data, Christie Ence
  • NOAA Chart Discrepancies: A Temporal and Spatial Analysis for Navigation Response Teams, Lt. Cmdr. Matt Forney
  • Airborne Lidar Bathymetry’s Impact on NOAA Charts, Andres Garrido
  • Validating and Refining the Proposed Rescheming of NOAA Electronic Navigational Charts, Colby Harmon
  • High Resolution Bathymetry as an Alternative to Charting Controlling Depths in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Channels, Craig Winn
  • Satellite Derived Bathymetry: An Alternative Analysis to Nautical Chart Updates, Aleah Worthem

This inaugural class will complete an internship as part of the program over the summer and receive their certificates in September 2018.

NOAA’s Colby Harmon (center) and Craig Winn (right) talk nautical charting with capstone course instructor Dr. Jonathan Resop at the poster symposium.
NOAA’s Colby Harmon (center) and Craig Winn (right) talk nautical charting with capstone course instructor Dr. Jonathan Resop at the poster symposium.
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Lt. Cmdr. Matt Forney (right) explains nautical chart discrepancies and their importance to NOAA’s navigation response teams.

NOAA’s certification program in nautical cartography, recognized and approved by the International Board on Standards and Competence for Hydrographic Surveyors and Nautical Cartographers (IBSC), grants certificates to up to 13 cartographers per year. Students learn through a combination of lectures, hands-on chart production experience, work details to various branches within the Coast Survey, and field trips to working hydrographic survey vessels. The first class began in fall 2017 at Coast Survey headquarters in Silver Spring, Maryland. The duration of the program is 51 weeks and comprises six courses.

The 2018 certification program in nautical cartography starts in August 2018. The class is already full with another 13 students, 12 from NOAA and one from the Nigerian Navy.

 

 

 

 

NOAA makes forecast data easier to display in marine navigation systems

By, Neil Weston, Office of Coast Survey Technical Director

Have you ever been on the water when weather and sea conditions suddenly change? As mariners can attest, decisions need to be made quickly. Many rely on NOAA operational forecast system (OFS) data—a national network of nowcast and forecast models—to make decisions about their situation on the water. NOAA OFS are available to the mariner as data streams through a variety of websites, including nowCOAST™. However, only recently has OFS data been viewable on marine navigation systems, making it even more convenient for those needing to make critical decisions on the water.

Rose Point’s Coastal Explorer displays NOAA surface current data.
Rose Point’s Coastal Explorer, one example of many navigation software packages available, displays NOAA surface current data.

NOAA’s Office of Coast Survey recently started producing OFS data in formats that are easily ingested by marine navigation systems, such as Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS), portable pilot units (PPU), and electronic charting systems (ECS). These data not only have the potential to display nowcasts and forecasts in real-time on navigation system displays, but can also optimize route planning for commercial ships. Ultimately, these model forecast data will be available for machine-to-machine exchange, with data file sizes small enough to enable delivery from shore to vessel over existing communication and data networks.

Nowcasts and forecasts are scientific predictions about the present and near future state of a coastal marine environment including water levels, currents, salinity, and sea surface temperature for many coastal regions. OFS are national networks of operational nowcast and forecast models that consist of automated integration of observing system data, hydrodynamic model predictions, product dissemination, and continuous quality control monitoring. These versatile systems can be used for a variety of activities such as search and rescue, recreational boating, fishing, and storm effect tracking.

Seapilot Navigation computes the optimized route from start to finish via any waypoints, considering wind, current, land, shallow water and the properties of the boat.
Seapilot Navigation computes the optimized route from start to finish via any waypoints, considering wind, current, land, shallow water and the properties of the boat. This system also displays NOAA OFS data (surface currents).

Initially, the Coast Survey converted surface current data for several OFS regions from a format primarily used by scientists (netCDF), to a format more widely used in meteorology (GRIB 1 & 2). A parallel developmental effort is underway to include conversion of netCDF data to an internationally recognized format (HDF5) adopted by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). Within the IHO, many product specifications, including tides, water levels, and currents, are developed using HDF5 encoding. The goal is to produce products and services that comply to internationally accepted standards such as those adopted by the IHO. Compliance with these standards increases data interoperability, allowing navigation platforms to easily ingest and display the data. Coast Survey plans to disseminate OFS data in the HDF5 format by the end of 2018.

Any mention of a commercial product is for informational purposes and does not constitute an endorsement by the U.S. Government or any of its employees or contractors.

NOAA adds grid overlay to chart anchorage areas in Port of New York and New Jersey

NOAA Coast Survey recently released updates for two NOAA electronic navigational charts (NOAA ENC®) in the Port of New York and New Jersey, which added a permanent grid system overlay to anchorages in Bay Ridge, Graves End, and Stapleton. Coast Survey performed the update at the request of the Harbor Operations Steering Committee and collaborated with the Sandy Hook Pilots Association and U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Sector New York’s Vessel Traffic Services (VTS). 

The overlays, created by the Sandy Hook Pilots, consist of parallel and vertical lines that are labeled and charted over the anchorage areas. The VTS adopted this grid system overlay and uses it to assign specific anchorage locations for ship pilots and captains of tug and barge combinations.

A grid overlay of anchorage grounds in the updated Port of New York and New Jersey ENCs, US5NY19M and US5NY1CM
A grid overlay of anchorage grounds in the updated Port of New York and New Jersey ENCs, US5NY19M and US5NY1CM.

“Incorporating these overlays in an ENC will increase safety and efficiency in the port’s limited anchorage space. VTS will be able to clearly direct a vessel to a specific grid location, and that vessel will be able to see the location on their electronic chart system,” said USCG Capt. M.H. Day, Captain of the Port, Sector New York.

Coast Survey prioritizes new data for chart updates as being either “critical” or “routine” (i.e. “non-critical.”)  Critical corrections – items that pose an immediate danger to mariners – are published by the USCG in their weekly Local Notices to Mariners. Mariners who purchased a paper copy of a NOAA chart may hand correct their chart or purchase an updated chart from one of NOAA’s certified print agents. Digital versions of the charts are updated each week with items published in the USCG Local Notice to Mariners. Mariners interested in seeing where both critical and routine corrections fall on a given chart each week can use the Weekly Updates Site. Updates to this site are underway which will provide mariners greater flexibility in viewing an accumulation of changes over a specified date range rather than viewing them week by week.

Navigating waters before GPS: Why some mariners still refer to Loran-C

by Nick Perugini

One of the most popular recurring questions received by NOAA’s Office of Coast Survey involves customers – typically fishermen – wanting to obtain a chart with a Loran-C navigation grid on it. Here are a few inquiries from NOAA’s Nautical Inquiry & Comment System:

  • Hello, I was wondering if it is still possible to purchase or locate older editions of Lake Huron charts (14862-3-4) with the LORAN-C overlay. Many older wrecks and reported snags are still in Loran and have not been converted to GPS. Artificial algorithms are difficult to use when plotting grids. Any help you can give me is much appreciated.
  • Is it possible to access Loran-C charts of New England from prior to 2009 when NOAA stopped published with the LORAN-C lines? THANKS!
  • I was wondering if there was a way for me to buy a chart that has LORAN lines and notes on it? I understand that all of the new charts no longer have this information on them. I am most interested in Chart 11520, Cape Hatteras to Charleston. I didn’t know if there might be an archived form of this chart that shows the LORAN features. Any help in finding a chart like this would be greatly appreciated.

A quick history lesson on Loran-C: Loran (Long range navigation) was a hyperbolic radio navigation system developed in World War II. Loran grid lines (actually hyperbolas) first appeared on nautical charts during the 1950’s. The intersection of these electronic lines of position generated from shore transmitters provided mariners with accurate positions, within hundreds of feet, as their vessels operated nearshore as well as many hundreds of miles offshore. In the 1970’s, the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) upgraded Loran-A to Loran-C, a system that was even more accurate and much easier to use.

However, positioning technology marches on. With the dawning of a high accuracy Global Positioning System (GPS) in the early 1990s, Loran-C slowly became antiquated and finally the USCG took Loran-C transmitting stations offline in 2010. With no Loran-C signal, Coast Survey followed suit and began to eliminate Loran-C lattices from nautical charts. Most charting customers welcomed the removal of the busy lattices from the chart as it made the chart more readable.

The entrance to the Chesapeake Bay, Chart 12221, with a Loran-C grid on the 2009 edition (left) and without Loran-C (right).
The entrance to the Chesapeake Bay, Chart 12221, with a Loran-C grid on the 2009 edition (left) and without Loran-C (right).

So why do some people still want nautical charts with a Loran-C lattice? Prior to GPS, many fishermen and commercial diving operations did not use a true latitude and longitude (Lat/Lon) geographic coordinate system to position their offshore features. They identified their favorite fishing or diving locations by Loran-C time delay coordinates. When Loran-C lattices were removed from NOAA charts, many fishermen were left with Loran-C coordinates that had no corresponding Lat/Lon. Therefore, they did not have a way of plotting their Loran-C coordinates on current charts.

The Office of Coast Survey Historical Map & Chart Collection provides one way to address the problem. Users can find editions of their charts published prior to 2010 that would likely contain a Loran-C lattice. While historical charts should not be used for navigation today since they have not been updated, they can be used to convert Loran-C coordinates to Lat/Lon (GPS coordinates). Customers can download charts as high-resolution images, transfer the files to a flash drive, and take it to a local printer who can print the charts in a large format. Alternatively, some electronic chart systems allow you to display Loran-C lattices over current up-to-date charts, or to import a chart image, define its Lat/Lon origin, and utilize it with chart plotter software.

So is Loran gone forever? Not quite. In fact, Loran is making a comeback as Enhanced Loran, i.e. “eLoran.” With increased awareness of the vulnerabilities of satellite positioning systems, there is a growing consensus in the national security community that an independent back-up positioning system is required. The USCG and other organizations within the Department of Homeland Security are conducting tests on eLoran. Like the original Loran-C, the new system would have shore-based transmitters that generate hyperbolic grids. Unlike the old system, eLoran would be much more accurate with differential corrections built into the signal transmissions. When and if eLoran comes to fruition, you will not see Loran grid lines returning to NOAA charts since receivers will likely be working in a Lat/Lon coordinate system.

Online NOAA Custom Chart lets boaters create their own charts

A prototype version of a powerful new online tool, NOAA Custom Chart, is now available for boaters and other nautical chart users. The application enables users to define the scale and paper size of custom-made nautical charts centered on a position of their choosing. Once the functionality of this prototype is fully developed, NOAA Custom Chart will be an easy way for boaters to create a paper or digital back-up for the electronic chart system or other GPS-enabled chart display that they are using on board.

NOAA Custom Chart creates a geospatially referenced PDF (GeoPDF) from the NOAA electronic navigational chart (NOAA ENC®) database. In the final operational version of the application, chart notes and other margin notes will be placed at the bottom, below the chart neatline, similar to USGS topographic (US Topo) maps. The user may download, view, and print the output.

NOAA Custom Chart makes it easy for users to create a personalized chart.
NOAA Custom Chart makes it easy for users to create a personalized chart.

There are several options for customizing the appearance of the chart data. The prototype creates charts with either the “traditional” or “simplified” symbology of the Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS) used by professional mariners. Future versions of NOAA Custom Chart will add a full paper chart symbology option.

U.S.CustomChart_Interface
Simple interface lets users choose a scale, paper size, and the center of their own chart.

If you are interested in customizing your own nautical charts, visit NOAA Custom Chart. Then tell us your ideas for improving it through NOAA’s Nautical Inquiry & Comment System. 

 

NOAA mobile integrated survey team prepares for hurricane season

NOAA’s Office of Coast Survey is the federal leader in emergency hydrographic response. Consecutive strong storms during the 2017 hurricane season made response efforts challenging, and emphasized the importance of having a well-trained and versatile staff. Coast Survey’s regional navigation managers, navigation response teams (NRTs), and mobile integrated survey team (MIST) worked with partners before and after the storms to quickly and safely reopen ports and waterways.

The MIST equipment is a mobile, quick-install side scan and single beam sonar kit that can be quickly set up on a vessel of opportunity. Recently, Coast Survey sent the MIST team to Astoria, Oregon to conduct a hydrographic survey of the Mott Basin area, which the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) requested to confirm charted depth and obstruction data.

The MIST group used this as an opportunity to give NRTs experience with setup, usage, and tear down of MIST equipment, as well as to perform a system test prior to the upcoming hurricane season.

Data collection in the Mott Basin aboard the USCG Trailerable Aids to Navigation Boat (TANB) vessel
Data collection in the Mott Basin aboard the USCG Trailerable Aids to Navigation Boat (TANB) vessel

The team installed and integrated the MIST equipment on a USCG Trailerable Aids to Navigation Boat (TANB) vessel. TANB vessels are normally used for navigation aid maintenance, but can serve as a vessel of opportunity for hydrographic surveys using MIST equipment. During the 2017 hurricane season, NOAA used USCG vessels of opportunity in Florida and Puerto Rico for rapid hydrographic survey response.

Setting up the MIST equipment on a USCG TANB vessel
Setting up the MIST equipment on a USCG TANB vessel

The deployment to Mott Basin in not only provided USCG with hydrographic data to meet their operational mission, but also allowed NOAA to exercise equipment that will be critical to any upcoming storm or emergency response.

The MIST and USCG survey crew. Tim Wilkinson (NRT3, far left),Erin Diurba (NRT4, second from left), Alex Ligon (NRT1, second from right) and Mike Annis (HQ, far right) represented Coast Survey.
The MIST and USCG survey crew. Tim Wilkinson (NRT3, far left), Erin Diurba (NRT4, second from left), Alex Ligon (NRT1, second from right) and Mike Annis (HQ, far right) represented Coast Survey.

Coast Survey’s NRTs conduct hydrographic surveys to update NOAA’s suite of nautical charts. The teams are strategically located around the country and remain on call to respond to emergencies speeding the resumption of shipping after storms, and protecting life and property from underwater dangers to navigation.